DescriptionMoscow became the capital of Russia and the Soviet Union after the revolution of 1917. Then it had 1.7 million inhabitants. In 2010 the city has 11.5 million inhabitants on an area of 1081 km2 (40 km from one side to the other). In 1932 construction of Moscow's metro began as a piece of art with elegant and huge stations. Today the Moscow metro seems to be the busiest in the world, carrying an average of 8-9 million passengers on a normal weekday, i.e. some 3,000,000,000 (!) a year.
The Moscow Metro is 313.9 km long and has 188 stations (Dec 2012). Although there are line numbers on some maps lines are identified by names referring to the areas they serve. There's also a 20 km long ring line connecting all other lines. The system is almost entirely underground although some lines (1, 2, 4) cross the Moskva river and line 1 also the Yauza river on a bridge. An exception is the Filyovskaya which has a longer surface section between Kievskaya and Kuntsevskaya with 7 above ground stations.
The first line opened on 15 May 1935 between Sokol'niki and Park Kul'tury with a branch to Smolenskaya which reached Kievskaya in April 1937 (crossing Moskva river on a bridge). Two more lines were opened before World War II. In March 1938 the Arbatskaya line was extended to Kurskaya station (now Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya - dark blue line). In Sept. 1938 the Gorkovsko-Zamoskvoretskaya line opened between Sokol and Teatral'naya (without Tverskaya station which was added in 1979).
The projects of the third stage of the Moscow metro were delayed during the War. Two metro sections were put into service: Teatralnaya - Avtozavodskaya (3 stations, crossing the Moskva river in a deep tunnel) and Kurskaya - Partizanskaya (ex Izmaylovskiy Park - 4 stations).
After the War construction started on the fourth stage of the metro, which included the Kol'tsevaya line and a deep part of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line from Pl. Revolyutsii to Kievskaya.
The Kol'tsevaya line was planned first as a line running under the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring), a boulevard ring running along the limits of 16th century Moscow. The first part of the line - from Park Kul'tury to Kurskaya (1950) is indeed situated under this boulevard. But later plans were changed and the northern part of the ring line runs 1-1.5 km outside the Sadovoye Koltso, thus providing service for 7 (out of 9) railway stations. The next part of the Kol'tsevaya line opened in 1952 (Kurskaya - Belorusskaya) and in 1954 the ring line was completed.
19 stations - 26.2 km
21 stations - 40.0 km
22 stations - 45.1 km
13 stations - 14.9 km
12 stations - 19.3 km - ring line
24 stations - 37.9 km
19 stations - 35.9 km
Between Tushinskaya and Shchukinskaya provisions for another station, Volokolamskaya, were made.
8 stations - 16.3 km
25 stations - 41.5 km
17 stations - 28.0 km
3 stations - 3.4 km
Operated as a branch of Line 2 from Kashirskaya to Kakhovskaya until 1995.
"Light Metro" - 5 stations - 5.5 km (90 m long platforms)
6 stations - 4.7 km