I have the very same problem. Have you managed to solve it?
I will tell my story so that people may figure out what happened:
The problem started when I tried to charge my Zenfone 5 (which charger is 0.7A) with my Asus Transformerbook charger (3A) and I thought it would be no problem because both were 5V. Well, the zenfone started to sometimes not to recognize any charger, or keep charging (orange led or battery in screen) without any cable. I read some cases in internet and found out that "third part" chargers may oxide the usb port causing it to malfunction. I solved this problem just plugging in and out a micro usb cable a lot of times, to clean the oxide. But after that I never tried again to connect it to the PC with a usb cable. A couple of days ago I tried that and am receiving the very same message in the Windows 10 device manager: "Device descriptor request failed". I already tried to uninstall all usb drivers and reboot the machine, download the usb driver from asus page (windows refuses to install it saying that the best driver is already installed), change some configurations in zenfone like usb debug, mpt and ptp options and so on. I thought that given that it is charging normally again, maybe it would also connect to the pc... but I am afraid it is a hardware problem.
— modified on Jun 25, 2017, 2:51:57 AM